4 CSR AND NON-FINANCIAL INFORMATION - Limiting our environmental impact and operating in a safe environment
220.127.116.11 ATMOSPHERIC EMISSIONS FROM INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY With the exception of refining in the French Antilles, the activities of Rubis Énergie are not classed as industrial transformation processes. Due to their size, Rubis Terminal storage sites are the other most significant contributor to air pollution within the Group. Rubis is committed to implementing a policy geared towards limiting these emissions. To this end, the Group is progressively evaluating its various sources of air pollution. The Group’s CO 2 emissions assessment (Bilan Carbone ® ) is reported in section 18.104.22.168 relating to climate change. The storage activity releases VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) from the surface of the products stored which, depending on their physico-chemical properties, may vaporize according to the storage and handling conditions. Limitation measures Gasoline vapors are collected in Rubis Terminal’s French storage terminals and certain Rubis Énergie facilities (refining and certain depots) in France Vapors recovered when tank trucks discharge their loads are piped to vapor recovery units (VRU), where they are condensed into liquid fuel before being reinjected into the storage tanks. In addition, fuel storage tanks are equipped with floating screens, and loading is per formed through bot tom-loading stations so as to minimize VOC discharges into the atmosphere. The handful of Rubis Énergie facilities that do not yet have these technologies will be equipped soon. Collection and treatment of VOCs in the chemical depots of Antwerp and Rotterdam From their creation, both these sites were designed to collect and treat all VOC vapors occurring above liquids and pushed outside of the site’s or vessel’s tanks during transfers. STORAGE ACTIVITY Risks
Reduction of energy consumption in storage terminals As the energy consumed by the storage terminals is derived from the same source as the energy generating CO 2 (pumps and boilers), the actions taken by Rubis Terminal to reduce energy consumption on sites, in terms of both existing and new heating systems, are described hereafter (section 22.214.171.124).
operations when filling cylinders and trucks and degassing cylinders for technical inspections. Other VOCs are made up of the solvents contained in paints used for cylinders. Automotive fuel distribution, storage and distribution facilities generate VOC emissions from gasoline. These emissions are particularly low due to measures taken to collect gasoline fumes, as described below. The distribution activity does not emit significant volumes of NO X . Limitation measures In gas stations, vapors emitted during reception and delivery to customers are gradually being recovered, especially in France where regulations have required this for several years.
DISTRIBUTION ACTIVITY Risks
The distribution of petroleum products activity generates some VOC emissions, however these emissions remain relatively low. In LPG distribution, VOC emissions are generated by connection/disconnection
UNDERSTANDING AIR POLLUTANTS AND GREENHOUSE GASES
Human activities (transport, accommodation, industry, agriculture) are sources of greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution. Although they are closely linked and some measures thus aim to reduce both air pollutants and greenhouse gases (for example, improved efficiency of heating systems at the storage sites and optimization of distances covered by delivery trucks), they must not be confused with one another. • Made up of toxic gases or harmful particles, air pollutants have a direct and generally local effect on health and the environment when they exceed certain thresholds. Over and above human activities, they can also come from natural sources, such as volcanoes (sulfur dioxide). Due to their negative impacts, the release of these air pollutants resulting from human activities is supervised and monitored. Air pollutant emissions measured in the Rubis storage activities and support and services activities concern: > nitrogen oxide ( NO X ), which is formed in particular during fossil fuel combustion processes ; > sulfur dioxide ( SO 2 ), which arises from several industrial processes and the consumption of fossil fuels containing sulfur ; > volatile organic compounds ( VOC ), including benzene , which is found in paint and automotive fuel in particular. • Greenhouse gases occur naturally in the atmosphere and play a vital role in regulating and maintaining the Earth’s average temperature (natural greenhouse effect). Contrary to air pollutants, greenhouse gases have little direct effects on health. However, an excess of greenhouse gases released by human activities is largely responsible for global warming (we speak of an additional greenhouse effect). In its activities, the greenhouse gas released by Rubis is carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), which is measured (Bilan Carbone ® ) and subject to reduction measures (see section 126.96.36.199).